Sea-crossing bridges have always been unique attractions, drawing in hundreds of tourists year after year. But what exactly are the world's most notable sea-crossing bridges? Let's take a closer look:
1. Øresund Bridge
Connecting Copenhagen, Denmark, and Malmö, Sweden's third-largest city, the Øresund Bridge spans 16 kilometers and is the largest cable-stayed bridge in the world. Completed in May 2000, the bridge links the most densely populated, economically active, and culturally connected areas in the Nordic and Baltic regions.
2. King Fahd Bridge
The King Fahd Bridge stretches 25 kilometers from Jasra in the west of Bahrain Island to Aziz in Saudi Arabia. Featuring four lanes of traffic and sidewalks on both sides, it can accommodate 30,000 vehicles per day with a design speed of 100 kilometers per hour. The entire project, which includes connecting roads, cost $1.2 billion and was entirely funded by Saudi Arabia.
Two artificial islands were built at the intersection of the waters of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, featuring customs and border posts for both countries, office buildings for immigration, passports, health, quarantine, coast guard, and administration, and the Hightower Hotel, which offers tourism and sightseeing services.
The bridge took over four years to complete, with construction starting in 1981 and opening to traffic on November 25, 1986. Compared to the two hours it used to take by ferry, the bridge allows for a 20-minute drive from Manama, the capital of Bahrain, to the Saudi Arabian city of Al-Khobar.
3. East Sea Bridge
The East China Sea Bridge spans the northern part of Hangzhou Bay to Yangshan Deepwater Port in Shanghai, with the creative concept of the "East China Sea Rainbow." It resembles a bright rainbow on the East China Sea.
While most bridges built in Shanghai are located along the Huangpu River and Suzhou River, the East China Sea Bridge is the first real sea bridge. The longest bridge built in the open sea worldwide is only 16 kilometers long, whereas the Donghai Bridge is 32.5 kilometers long, truly earning its nickname as the "Bridge of the World."
4. Chesapeake Bay Bridge, USA
Consisting of 20.11 kilometers of concrete low-level viaducts, two undersea tunnels of 1.6 kilometers each, two high-level steel bridges, four artificial islands of 457 meters in length, 3.2 kilometers of causeways, and 8.85 kilometers of approach bridges, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge spans from Norfolk to the Delaware Peninsula. The total length of the bridge is 37 kilometers.
5. Seto Bridge, Japan
The Seto Bridge in Japan stretches 37.3 kilometers across the Seto Inland Sea between Honshu and Shikoku Island, including 13.1 kilometers for the sea portion. It consists of three cable-stayed bridges, two suspension bridges, and one truss bridge, making it the longest sea-crossing bridge at the time of its construction.
The Seto Bridge is a dual-purpose highway-railway bridge, with a 4-lane expressway on the upper deck and the JR Shikoku Seto Ohashi Line on the lower deck. It's also the longest suspension bridge in the world.
6. Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is a mega cross-sea bridge connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai, and Macau. The total length of the bridge is 49.968 kilometers, with the sea section covering 42 kilometers, and the main project "bridge and tunnel in the sea" span 35.578 kilometers.